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国际团队首绘全球入侵物种地图:对岛屿影响更强烈

????根据外来物种丰度绘制的全球外来物种热点地图。图中只收录了具有采样数据的国家、联邦州和岛屿/群岛,红色区域的入侵物种数量较高。这项研究由英国杜伦大学主导的国际团队完成的,他们对8个类别的生物数据进行了分析,包括两栖动物、蚂蚁、鸟类、淡水鱼类、哺乳动物、爬行动物、蜘蛛和维管植物,涉及186座岛屿和423个大陆区域。研究人员称,这些发现表明,人类需要采取更加有效的措施,以阻止外来的动、植物进入脆弱的生态系统。成种群入侵物种分布的热点地区主要为岛屿和大陆近海区域。研究中涉及的所有8个类群中,夏威夷群岛都具有很高的入侵物种数量。该群岛的入侵物种包括现在已经在全球广泛分布的孔雀鱼,以及哺乳动物中的野猪。紧随夏威夷群岛之后的是新西兰,其植物种类中有一半属于入侵物种。掠食性哺乳动物如老鼠、猫和负鼠等,已经对新西兰本土鸟类造成了严重威胁,这些鸟类在漫长的演化历史中已经习惯了没有陆地捕食者的环境。尽管英国不是3个热点地区之一,但所具有的成种群入侵动、植物已经比其他许多地区都要多。英国发现的一些入侵物种包括已经在伦敦随处可见的红领绿鹦鹉,在河边和溪流边生长的喜马拉雅凤仙花,以及灰松鼠等哺乳动物。灰松鼠在与本土物种欧亚红松鼠的竞争中已经处于上风,使后者的数量不断下降。此外,假黑寡妇蜘蛛(学名:Steatoda nobilis)也随着进口水果货物在无意中被带入了英国。美国佛罗里达州也是入侵物种的热点地区之一,主要的入侵物种包括缅甸蟒和一些非本土的蚂蚁物种。根据此次研究,佛罗里达州的财富、人口密度和气候条件都会影响成种群入侵物种的数量,尽管这些因素在不同物种和不同区域之间差别很大。论文第一作者、杜伦大学生物科学系的研究者韦恩·道森(Wayne Dawson)说:“我们的研究显示,岛屿和大陆近海区域具有较高的成种群入侵动、植物物种数量,这可能是因为这些地区具有较多的入口,比如数量众多的港口。”“总体而言,更加富裕,而且人口更密集的地区具有更多的外来物种,但这些因素对岛屿的影响更加强烈,”韦恩·道森补充道,“我们还需要更多的工作,以了解这些情况的出现是因为更多的物种被引入热点地区,还是因为人类在这些地区的活动使其更容易被外来物种找到空间,以及发展壮大的机会。”研究人员称,阻止引入更多入侵物种的努力应该更关注岛屿和大陆近海地区。“虽然从历史上看,物种在世界范围内一直在流动,但随着世界不同地区联系越来越紧密,越来越多的物种被引入到了新的环境,与此同时人口也在不断增长,”道森说,“外来物种中有许多是有用的,但不会在新环境中建立种群并扩散,但另一些物种则不同,它们会对本土物种和生态系统产生不同水平的冲击。”道森表示,我们需要了解世界不同地区的物种混合之后产生的后果,并决定如何应对这种变化,采取适当的措施阻止外来物种被引入那些生态系统最脆弱的地区。目前采取的方法包括在主要关口加强生物安全措施,查处偷运物种等,这些已经在新西兰实施。“此外,我们还应该对准备引入新环境的物种进行非常细致的评估,如欧洲和地中海植物保护组织(EPPO)等机构所做的,以排查出那些可能会建立种群并带来负面影响的物种,”道森说道。

gen ju wai lai wu zhong feng du hui zhi de quan qiu wai lai wu zhong re dian di tu. tu zhong zhi shou lu le ju you cai yang shu ju de guo jia lian bang zhou he dao yu qun dao, hong se qu yu de ru qin wu zhong shu liang jiao gao. zhe xiang yan jiu you ying guo du lun da xue zhu dao de guo ji tuan dui wan cheng de, ta men dui 8 ge lei bie de sheng wu shu ju jin xing le fen xi, bao kuo liang qi dong wu ma yi niao lei dan shui yu lei bu ru dong wu pa xing dong wu zhi zhu he wei guan zhi wu, she ji 186 zuo dao yu he 423 ge da lu qu yu. yan jiu ren yuan cheng, zhei xie fa xian biao ming, ren lei xu yao cai qu geng jia you xiao de cuo shi, yi zu zhi wai lai de dong zhi wu jin ru cui ruo de sheng tai xi tong. cheng zhong qun ru qin wu zhong fen bu de re dian di qu zhu yao wei dao yu he da lu jin hai qu yu. yan jiu zhong she ji de suo you 8 ge lei qun zhong, xia wei yi qun dao dou ju you hen gao de ru qin wu zhong shu liang. gai qun dao de ru qin wu zhong bao kuo xian zai yi jing zai quan qiu guang fan fen bu de kong que yu, yi ji bu ru dong wu zhong de ye zhu. jin sui xia wei yi qun dao zhi hou de shi xin xi lan, qi zhi wu zhong lei zhong you yi ban shu yu ru qin wu zhong. lue shi xing bu ru dong wu ru lao shu mao he fu shu deng, yi jing dui xin xi lan ben tu niao lei zao cheng le yan zhong wei xie, zhei xie niao lei zai man chang de yan hua li shi zhong yi jing xi guan le mei you lu di bu shi zhe de huan jing. jin guan ying guo bu shi 3 ge re dian di qu zhi yi, dan suo ju you de cheng zhong qun ru qin dong zhi wu yi jing bi qi ta xu duo di qu dou yao duo. ying guo fa xian de yi xie ru qin wu zhong bao kuo yi jing zai lun dun sui chu ke jian de hong ling lv ying wu, zai he bian he xi liu bian sheng zhang de xi ma la ya feng xian hua, yi ji hui song shu deng bu ru dong wu. hui song shu zai yu ben tu wu zhong ou ya hong song shu de jing zheng zhong yi jing chu yu shang feng, shi hou zhe de shu liang bu duan xia jiang. ci wai, jia hei gua fu zhi zhu xue ming: Steatoda nobilis ye sui zhe jin kou shui guo huo wu zai wu yi zhong bei dai ru le ying guo. mei guo fo luo li da zhou ye shi ru qin wu zhong de re dian di qu zhi yi, zhu yao de ru qin wu zhong bao kuo mian dian mang he yi xie fei ben tu de ma yi wu zhong. gen ju ci ci yan jiu, fo luo li da zhou de cai fu ren kou mi du he qi hou tiao jian dou hui ying xiang cheng zhong qun ru qin wu zhong de shu liang, jin guan zhei xie yin su zai bu tong wu zhong he bu tong qu yu zhi jian cha bie hen da. lun wen di yi zuo zhe du lun da xue sheng wu ke xue xi de yan jiu zhe wei en dao sen Wayne Dawson shuo:" wo men de yan jiu xian shi, dao yu he da lu jin hai qu yu ju you jiao gao de cheng zhong qun ru qin dong zhi wu wu zhong shu liang, zhe ke neng shi yin wei zhei xie di qu ju you jiao duo de ru kou, bi ru shu liang zhong duo de gang kou."" zong ti er yan, geng jia fu yu, er qie ren kou geng mi ji de di qu ju you geng duo de wai lai wu zhong, dan zhei xie yin su dui dao yu de ying xiang geng jia qiang lie," wei en dao sen bu chong dao," wo men hai xu yao geng duo de gong zuo, yi liao jie zhei xie qing kuang de chu xian shi yin wei geng duo de wu zhong bei yin ru re dian di qu, hai shi yin wei ren lei zai zhei xie di qu de huo dong shi qi geng rong yi bei wai lai wu zhong zhao dao kong jian, yi ji fa zhan zhuang da de ji hui." yan jiu ren yuan cheng, zu zhi yin ru geng duo ru qin wu zhong de nu li ying gai geng guan zhu dao yu he da lu jin hai di qu." sui ran cong li shi shang kan, wu zhong zai shi jie fan wei nei yi zhi zai liu dong, dan sui zhe shi jie bu tong di qu lian xi yue lai yue jin mi, yue lai yue duo de wu zhong bei yin ru dao le xin de huan jing, yu ci tong shi ren kou ye zai bu duan zeng zhang," dao sen shuo," wai lai wu zhong zhong you xu duo shi you yong de, dan bu hui zai xin huan jing zhong jian li zhong qun bing kuo san, dan ling yi xie wu zhong ze bu tong, ta men hui dui ben tu wu zhong he sheng tai xi tong chan sheng bu tong shui ping de chong ji." dao sen biao shi, wo men xu yao liao jie shi jie bu tong di qu de wu zhong hun he zhi hou chan sheng de hou guo, bing jue ding ru he ying dui zhe zhong bian hua, cai qu shi dang de cuo shi zu zhi wai lai wu zhong bei yin ru nei xie sheng tai xi tong zui cui ruo de di qu. mu qian cai qu de fang fa bao kuo zai zhu yao guan kou jia qiang sheng wu an quan cuo shi, cha chu tou yun wu zhong deng, zhei xie yi jing zai xin xi lan shi shi." ci wai, wo men hai ying gai dui zhun bei yin ru xin huan jing de wu zhong jin xing fei chang xi zhi de ping gu, ru ou zhou he di zhong hai zhi wu bao hu zu zhi EPPO deng ji gou suo zuo de, yi pai cha chu nei xie ke neng hui jian li zhong qun bing dai lai fu mian ying xiang de wu zhong," dao sen shuo dao.

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